In our language, you can find some very particular grammatical structures that in your language probably do not exist or are not common at all. This is the case of how we the Spanish speaker express that "we like something". Actually, in our language, we do not say "we like something" instead we say that "something pleases to us". Although in English, both ways express exactly the same meaning, only "I like something" is the most natural way while "something please to me" may sound a little uncommon for most English speakers. In other words, we approach the same idea from different perspectives, a situation that is denominated "language pragmatism".
Fortunately, these language pragmatism differences are not common between Spanish and English since most ideas can be translated from one language to another without major inconveniences. However, it is not the case if your mother tongue is an Asian language since in my experience there is a big pragmatic gap between romance languages and Asian ones. Fortunately, you are here because you speak English, therefore, the pragmatics differences must not represent a challenge to you.
One of the most representative pragmatic cases between our languages are the "verbos afectivos" and among them the verb "gustar" (to like). As I said before, in Spanish, we do not say "you like something", instead, we say "something pleases to you". Therefore, the subject in the sentence is not "you" but "the thing" that is pleasing to you. On the other hand, the subject in English that suppose to be "you" becomes the object "te" in Spanish.
Let's see an example,
You like chocolate.
"You" is the subject and "chocolate" the object in the sentence above.
Te gusta el chocolate. ---> The chocolate please to you. (note that the order of the sentence is opposite from English.)
"El chocolate" is the subject and "you" the object in the sentence.
Here more examples,
Me gusta tu casa.
Te gusta el gato.
¿Te gusta mi amigo?
Le gusta el café con leche.
¿Le gusta el helado de fresa?
No nos gusta tu nuevo corte de cabello.
¿Os gusta el español?
No les gusta la pizza con piña.
At this point, you are wondering why the verb conjugation does not change. To understand why we have to take a look at the conjugation table of the verb "gustar" below.
The reason why the verb "gusta" does not change in the examples above is that the verb always must agree with the subject and in all the examples above the subjects refer to a singular person, animal or thing. Therefore, the only verb that agrees to a singular subject is "gusta" as shown in the table above.
Me gusta tu casa. --> Your house please to me.
Te gusta el gato. --> The cat please to you.
"Tu casa" and "el gato" are the subjects, and as I said before, they are singular and according to the conjugation table, the only verb that agrees with them is "gusta".
In the case that the subject is plural, for example, "The cars please to me" we must use "gustan" since this is the only verb that agrees with plural subjects according to the table above.
Me gustan los carros.
Te gustan estas películas de fantasía.
No le gustan las canciones de BTS. 😅
Nos gustan los chocolates venezolanos.
Os gustan las cervezas alemanas.
Les gustan tus dibujos.
What about if the subject is different from a singular or a plural noun? For example, if the subject is "you" like the following sentence below.
I like you.
In this particular case, we must find the verb that agrees with the subject "tú" (in Spanish), that according to the conjugation table correspond to the verb "gustas". Therefore, in Spanish would be as follows.
Me gustas tú. (in Spanish, it refers to a physical taste, not an effective one)
Gustar + Verbs
So far we have seen "gustar" + singular and plural nouns. What about "gustar" + verbs?
Me gusta escuchar musica. --> Listening music please to me.
There are some important things to mention about the example above. The first one is that "escuchar" is the subject and unlike English, in Spanish, we use infinitive verbs instead of the gerund. Second, just like English, we do not use articles in front of infinitive verbs. Third, "música" is the direct object, therefore, we do not use an article in front of it, unless we refer to a specific type of music.
Me gusta escuchar la música de Dua Lipa.
Note: in case you want to use a direct object in the sentence above, you must attach it to the infinite verb.
Me gusta escucharla.
Important: regardless of the number of the object (singular or plural), you must always use "gusta" + infinitive verbs. "Gustan" + infinitive verbs is a common mistake for beginners.
Me gusta comer helado.
Me gusta comer helados.
Me gustan comer helados.
Finally, let me mention that in Spanish we also use the "encantar" to express pleasantness. However, "encantar" has a stronger meaning. It could be translated as "love".
Me encanta el café.
Nos encanta viajar.
Les encantan los videojuegos.
Important: In Spanish, there are many ways to express pleasantness, below the different ways to express it from highest to lowest.
Yo adoro la comida mexicana.
Yo amo la comida mexicana.
Me encanta la comida mexicana.
Me gusta la comida mexicana.
También vs Tampoco
As you see above, "también" and "tampoco" are used to show agreement. The difference between them is that "también" is used to answer a positive statement (me too) while "tampoco" is used to answer a negative one (me neither / either). Unlike English, in Spanish, we do not distinguish between "neither" and "neither".
Unlike "gustar", "molestar" is used to express discomfort or annoyance, and it is used the same way we use the verb "gustar" since it is also a "verbo afectivo".
Me molesta estudiar español los fines de semana.
↪ Studying Spanish on weekends bothers me.
↪ It bothers me to study Spanish on the weekends.
Me molesta el reguetón.
¿Te molesta el humo del cigarrillo?
Le molestan los mosquitos toda la noche.
Nos molesta tu actitud negativa.
Me molestas tú y tus amigos.
¿Os molestan los ruidos del vecino por la noche?
No les molesta trabajar horas extras.
The verb "parecer" is also an "verbo afectivo". It means that it works the same way that previous verbs do it. Like "pensar" and "creer", "parecer" is very common and helpful to express opinions and ideas.
La idea me parece maravillosa. --> The idea seems good to me.
La película te parece aburrida. --> The movie seems boring to you.
La casa les parece cara. --> The house seems expensive to them.
Marta nos parece muy amable y guapa. --> Marta seems pretty to us.
El inglés nos parece muy fácil. --> English seems very easy to us.
El metro de mi ciudad os parece muy moderno. --> The subway of my city seems modern to you.
Los estudiantes coreanos me parecen inteligentes. --> Korean students seem intelligfent to me.
Las historias de terror le parecen divertidas. --> Horror stories seem funny to him/her/you.
Los aviones nos parecen muy seguros. --> Airplanes seem very save to us.
Additionally, in Spanish, it is possible the following structure.
(something) me parece una idea maravillosa. --> It seems a good idea to me.
(Dothraki) les parece un idioma muy raro. --> It seems a very weird language to them.
In the examples above, it is understood that there is a subject at the beginning of the sentence, however, this is omitted by the speaker since the speaker supposes that the listener knows what it refers to.
Parecer + que + verbs
Me parece que ella es doctoral.
↪ It seems to me that she is a doctor.
(A ella) le parece que beber café es bueno para la salud.
↪ It seems to her that drinking coffee is good for the health.
Nos parece que estudiar idiomas nos abre muchas puertas.
↪ It seems to us that studying languages open many doors to us.
Me parece que Rosio no le gusta el fútbol.
↪ It seems to me that Rosio does not like football.
Le parece que la comida picante no es deliciosa.
↪ It seems to him/her/you that spicy food is not delicious.
Te parece que comprar carros usados no es buen negocio.
↪ It seems to you that buying second-hand cars is not a good business.
Me parece que los productos de Apple son muy caros.
↪ It seems to me that Apple's products are very expensive.
(A ellas) les parece que el taxista está un poco borracho/ebrio.
↪ It seems to them that the taxi driver is a little drunk.
Me parece que los niños están durmiendo.
↪ It seems to me that the kids are sleeping.
(A mis padres) les parece que los videojuegos son un desperdicio de tiempo.
↪ It seems to my parents that video games are a waste of time.
Now that you have learned how to use the "verbos afectivos", here is a list of "verbos afectivos" that are very helpful to speak Spanish.
↪ to bore
Me aburre el futbol.
Le aburre jugar futbol.
↪ to be fascinating to
Me fascina el chocolate.
Le fascinan los chocolates.
↪ to be important to
No me importa tu opinión.
Les importa mucho tu salud.
↪ to be interesting to
Me interesa la econ0mía del país.
Nos interesa estudiar idiomas.
↪ to be painful
Me duele el estomago.
Nos duela la cabeza.
↪ to itch
Me pica el ojo
Les pica la espalda.
↪ to be left over, remain
Me queda un cigarillo.
Les queda un litro de agua.
Nos quedan 10 dólares.
↪ to be lacking something
Me falta un zapato.
Le faltan 5 mil dólares para pagar el carro.
↪ to be crazy about
Me vuelve loco la música del vecino. 😡
Nos vuelve loco el chocolate. 😍
Le vuelven local los cantantes de pop. 🤪